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Breast conservation therapy (BCT) is widely accepted for breast cancer treatment. Nipple-sparing mastectomy has been newly developed to preserve the nipple-areolar complex and enhance aesthetic results. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the oncological safety and results of nipple-sparing mastectomy (NSM) after previous BCT.
Eighteen patients who received NSM and immediate breast reconstruction for local recurrence after BCT were identified. An additional 127 affected breasts with NSM and immediate breast reconstruction for primary breast cancer were selected as the control group. The patient disease status, reconstructive method, postoperative complications, and oncological outcome were investigated.
No apparent significant differences between the 2 groups were found regarding patient demographic data, tumor stage, reconstructive method, surgical complication, or tumor recurrence rate (all P values >0.05), except preoperative radiotherapy was higher in secondary NSM group (0% vs 77.8%, P < 0.001). The further nipple and secondary deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flap reconstruction rate was higher in the secondary NSM group (11.1% vs 0.8%, P = 0.041 and 16.7% vs 2.4%, P = 0.026, respectively).
Prior BCT did not contribute to higher surgical complications in patients who received NSM and immediate reconstruction as a salvage procedure after tumor local recurrence. The oncological safety, general surgical result, and postoperative patient-reported satisfaction remain safe and reliable despite prior ipsilateral surgery and radiation. Care should be taken for possible higher nipple necrosis in the secondary NSM patients.

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