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imageBackgroundHuman acellular dermal matrices (HADMs) are used in a variety of settings. AlloMax is a new HADM currently being used for breast reconstruction and hernia repair. We compared the in vivo tissue integration of AlloMax to AlloDerm, a well-studied HADM, in rats.
MethodsWe implanted AlloDerm and AlloMax patches into subcutaneous pockets on the backs of 32 male Sprague-Dawley rats. The animals were killed after either 4 or 8 weeks, and the patches were recovered and stained for histopathologic analyses. Microscopic end points included patch thickness, vascularization, tissue in-growth, fibroblast proliferation, and inflammation.
ResultsAll animals completed the study without complications or infection. There were no significant differences in graft thicknesses at 4 and 8 weeks. Microscopically, at 4 weeks, AlloDerm sections had significantly more microvessels than AlloMax (P = 0.02). This disparity increased by 8 weeks (P < 0.01). Similarly, we found greater tissue in-growth and fibroblast proliferation in AlloDerm than AlloMax sections at 4 (P < 0.01) and at 8 (P < 0.01) weeks. Inflammatory infiltrates consisted of lymphocytes, histiocytes, eosinophils, and plasma cells. Deep graft infiltration by predominately lymphocytic inflammatory cells was significantly higher in AlloDerm than AlloMax grafts at 4 (P = 0.01) and 8 (P = 0.02) weeks. Graft necrosis was uncommon, but marginal fibrosis was similar in both.
ConclusionsAlloDerm grafts had greater neovascularization, tissue infiltration, fibroblast proliferation, and inflammatory reaction than AlloMax grafts when placed subcutaneously in rats. AlloDerm may be better incorporated than AlloMax when placed in vivo.

Reviews of National Laser Institute