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Keloids, dermal fibroproliferative lesions, often occur secondary to skin injury and extend beyond the margins of the original lesion. Aggressive fibromatosis (AF) is a rare condition arising from fibroblasts and is characterized clinically as a nonmetastasizing but locally invasive tumor. In this work, we present the case of a patient who developed AF in the chest 3 years after surgery and postoperative radiotherapy for keloids.
Patient Concerns
A 15-year-old female patient who underwent surgery and postoperative radiotherapy for keloids presented with AF in the chest 3 years after intervention.
Diagnoses and Outcomes
Physical examination revealed a fan-shaped scar on the manubrium sterni with a radius of 7 cm, as well as a 9 (L) × 2-cm (W) longitudinal reddish and irregularly surfaced scar arising from previous incisions. By comparing this case with similar cases reported previously, we infer that a history of exposure to radiation is the main factor that contributes to the development of AF in patients suffering from keloid scars. We also discussed the clinical characteristics of AF and treatment options and suggest factors that should be considered when using radiotherapy in patients with keloids.
Lessons
To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of AF developing in a patient after radiotherapy for keloids. Radiotherapy may be a causal factor of AF.

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